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Table 3 Post-intervention values of estimated effects for all outcomes evaluated

From: The impact of a low-calorie, low-glycemic diet on systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review

Outcome Studies N MD Lower 95% Higher 95%
Diet effects compared to control      
Quality of life      
6 weeks 1 16 16.30 5.91 26.69
12 weeks 1 16 14.60 0.88 28.32
Lipid profile – 6 weeks      
HDL 1 16 5.50 − 7.21 18.21
LDL 1 16 5.70 16.72 28.12
Triglyceride 1 16 − 2.50 − 70.67 65.67
Lipid profile – 12 weeks      
HDL 1 16 3.90 17.54 9.74
LDL 1 16 15.30 − 8.12 38.72
Triglyceride 1 16 − 13.40 − 50.27 23.47
Lipid profile – 9 months      
HDL 1 31 4.30 − 6.96 15.56
LDL 1 31 − 13.15 − 29.38 3.08
Triglyceride 1 31 11.30 − 16.90 39.50
    RR Lower 95% Higher 95%
Disease activity (SLEDAI 2 K > 4) – 6 weeks 1 31 1.07 0.32 3.52
Outcome Studies N MD Lower 95% Higher 95%
Comparison between the low glycemic index diet and the calorie-restricted diet      
Fatigue, quality of sleep, disease activity – 6 weeks      
Fatigue Severity Scale 1 23 0.00 − 1.20 1.20
Pittsburgh Sleep/Quality Index 1 23 0.50 − 3.14 4.14
British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 1 23 0.00 − 3.52 3.52
European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement 1 23 − 0.90 − 1.94 0.14
Lipid profile – 6 weeks      
HDL 1 23 − 0.24 − 0.48 − 0.00
LDL 1 23 − 1.00 − 1.60 − 0.40
Triglyceride 1 23 − 0.35 − 0.89 0.19
  1. MD = mean difference; RR = relative risk; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; SLEDAI = Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index