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Table 5 Final logistic regression model regarding rheumatic disease patients enrolled at baseline

From: Chronic use of hydroxychloroquine did not protect against COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases in Brazil

Variables Binary analyses Multivariate analyses
No symptoms
N = 4029
n (%)
Clinical
Covid-19
N = 169
n (%)
p OR (95% CI) P****
Influenza vaccine within last 30 days 1235 (30.7) 39 (23.1) 0.034** 0.676 (0.465; 0.984) 0.041
IV Methylprednisolone (pulse) 21 (0.5) 2 (1.2) 0.236***   
Glucocorticoids      
No 2555 (63.9) 97 (58.1) 0.004** 1 -
 < 10 mg/day 1099 (27.5) 43 (25.7)   0.965 (0.662; 1.41) 0.854
 >  = 10 mg/day 343 (8.6) 27 (16.2)   2.07 (1.33; 3.22) 0.001
scDMARDs 1875 (46.5) 84 (49.7) 0.419**   
Biological or tsDMARDs 120 (3) 7 (4.1) 0.387**   
RA 317 (7.9) 16 (9.5) 0.466**   
MCTD 56 (1.4) 2 (1.2)  > 0.99***   
SS 39 (0.9) 4 (2.4) 0.042*** 3.81 (1.31; 11.05) 0.014
SLE 3304 (82) 134 (79.3) 0.414**   
IM 26 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 0.703***   
OA 60 (1.5) 1 (0.6) 0.518***   
pSjS 150 (3.79) 6 (3.6) 0.560***   
Another RD 55 (1.4) 4 (2.4) 0.299***   
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. RA, Rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, Systemic lupus erythematous; RD, Rheumatic diseases; MCTD, Mixed connective tissue disease; SS, Systemic sclerosis; IM, Inflammatory myopathies; OA, Osteoarthritis; pSjS, Primary Sjögren syndrome; sc, synthetic conventional; ts, target-specific; DMARDs, Disease Activity-Modifying Drugs; Model 3, Outcome is COVID-19 diagnosis, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health criteria; y, years; SD, standard deviation; med., median; min., minimum; max., maximum
  3. *Mann–Whitney test; **Chi-square test; ***Fischer’s exact test; ****Wald test by final logistic regression model