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Table 3 Self-reported influenza-like illness symptoms and a COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with rheumatic diseases and household contacts at baseline

From: Chronic use of hydroxychloroquine did not protect against COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases in Brazil

Symptoms All
N = 9589
n (%)
RD Patients
N = 5164
n (%)**
Household co-habitants
N = 4378
n (%) *
Difference
(95% CI)
p*
Any 1822 (19.1) 1135 (22) 687 (15.7) 6.3 (4.7; 7.9)  < 0.001
Fatigue 531 (5.6) 328 (6.4) 203 (4.6) 1.8 (0.9; 2.7)  < 0.001
Headache 734 (7.7) 453 (8.8) 281 (6.4) 2.4 (1.3; 3.5)  < 0.001
Rhinorrhea 976 (10.2) 601 (11.6) 375 (8.6) 3.0 (1.8; 4.2)  < 0.001
Dysgeusia 242 (2.5) 146 (2.8) 96 (2.2) 0.6 (0; 1.2) 0.049
Shortness of breath 266 (2.8) 188 (3.6) 78 (1.8) 1.8 (1.2; 2.4)  < 0.001
Sore throat 704 (7.4) 455 (8.8) 249 (5.7) 3.1 (2.1; 4.1)  < 0.001
Fever 486 (5.1) 276 (5.3) 210 (4.8) 0.5 (− 0.4; 1.4) 0.225
Anosmia 209 (2.2) 120 (2.3) 89 (2) 0.3 (− 0.3; 0.9) 0.333
Cough 910 (9.5) 579 (11.2) 331 (7.6) 3.6 (2.4; 4.8)  < 0.001
Fever AND Shortness of breath 123 (1.3) 80 (1.9) 43 (1.2) 0.7 (0.2; 1,2) 0.005
Fever AND Cough AND Shortness of breath 83 (0.9) 53 (1.3) 30 (0.8) 0.5 (0.1; 0.9) 0.034
BMH COVID-19 criteria 293 (3.1) 169 (4.03%) 124 (3.25%) 0.78 (− 0.05; 1.60) 0.065
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. The results are expressed as means, standard deviation and percentages
  3. BMH, Brazilian Ministry of Health
  4. *There are 45 missing data; **There are 2 missing