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Table 2 Risk factors associated with loss of HBV surface antibody

From: Risk factors for losing hepatitis B virus surface antibody in patients with HBV surface antigen negative/surface antibody positive serostatus receiving biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs: a nested case-control study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Risk ratio (95% CI) p-value Risk ratio (95% CI) p-value
Age 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.153   
Sex
 Female 1 (reference) 0.097   
 Male 0.48 (0.20–1.14)   
Rheumatic disease
 Rheumatoid arthritis 1 (reference) 0.582   
 Ankylosing spondylitis 0.60 (0.21–1.72)   
 Psoriatic arthritis/Psoriasis 0.87 (0.28–2.76)   
 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 2.73 (0.29–25.57)   
Anti-HBV core antigen positive 1.23 (0.51–2.95) 0.641   
Baseline serum anti-HBs titer (mIU/ml)
 Lower vs higher (continuous) 0.93 (0.89–0.97) 0.001 0.93 (0.88–0.97) 0.002
 > 100 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 ≤ 100 46.8 (10.09–∞) < 0.001 43.98 (9.34–∞) < 0.001
Biologic DMARDs
 Anti-TNF 1 (reference) 0.204   
 Not anti-TNF 1.80 (0.73–4.49)   
Conventional DMARDs
 Methotrexate 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.942   
 Sulfasalazine 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.135   
 Hydroxychloroquine 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.515   
 Cyclosporine 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.888   
 Leflunomide 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.958   
Prednisolone 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.064   
Comorbidity
 Prior alanine transaminase elevationa 2.93 (0.59–14.54) 0.188   
 Hepatitis C virus antibody positive 2.64 (0.54–12.92) 0.232   
 Diabetes mellitus 4.76 (1.48–15.30) 0.009 0.85 (0.19–3.92) 0.838b
 Chronic liver disease 2.62 (0.90–7.66) 0.079   
 Chronic kidney disease 14.00 (2.22–88.23) 0.005 45.68 (2.39–871.5) 0.011c
  1. Anti-HBs Hepatitis B virus surface antibody, DMARD Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, TNF Tumor necrosis factor
  2. aMore than five-fold upper reference of 40 IU/L
  3. bBaseline anti-HBs as continuous variable
  4. cBaseline anti-HBs continuous + chronic kidney disease + diabetes mellitus