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Table 3 Comparison of objective pain measures and oxidative stress markers between FMS Sham-rTMS and Real-rTMS group

From: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex for fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomised controlled trial with 6-months follow up

  Pre-rTMS Post-rTMS Follow-up
FU-1 (15-days)
NFR: Latency (ms)
 Sham 105.0 (95.0–124.4) 105.0 (90.0–120.0) 102.0 (87.6–104.0)
 Real 110.0 (95.5–137.8) 106.5 (97.6–120.8) 105.0 (97.3–120.0)
 p* 0.41 0.06 0.05
NFR: Duration (ms)
 Sham 42.5 (40.0–47.5) 42.5 (40.0–45.5) 45.0 (40.0–50.0)
 Real 40.5 (38.3–45.25) 40.0 (38.65–45.0) 42.3 (40.0–45.0)
 p* 0.52 0.06 0.07
NFR: Amplitude ((μV)
 Sham 294.0 (273.0–312.0) 287.0 (263.3–297.0) 284.5 (260.8–298.5)
 Real 281.6 (260.5 ± 314.3) 276.0 (234.5–311.5) 276.0 (243.8–295.2)
 p* 0.42 0.28 0.35
DNIC: Threshold (V)
 Sham 21.0 (18.5–24.5) 21.0 (20.0–24.0) 22.0 (19.0–25.0)
 Real 22.0 (18.0–25.5) 27.0 (25.0–34.0) ## 29.0 (25.0–39.0)
 p* 0.75 0.001 0.001
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS (ng/ml)
 Sham 0.88 (0.11–2.3) 0.90 (0.22–2.11)
 Real 0.97 (0.23–2.1) 0.78 (0.18–1.6)
 p* 0.71 0.07
F2-isoprostanes (pg/ml)
 Sham 209.8 (135.8–317.4) 183.9 (123.6–251.4)
 Real 180.4 (78.35–243.8) 181.9 (89.4–315.3)
 p* 0.14 0.19
  1. Sham (n = 41) and Real (n = 45); Data is presented as Median (25Q-75Q); NFR: Nociceptive flexion reflex. Asterisk (*) symbol indicates p value between Sham-rTMS and Real-rTMS group. Hash (#) symbol indicates p value within group. Hyphen-minus (−) symbol indicates that the data not recorded. *p or #p < 0.05; **p or ##p < 0.01; ***p or ###p < 0.001