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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the groups at baseline

From: Comparison of the effects of low-level laser and pulsed and continuous ultrasound on pain and physical disability in chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial

VariablesPulsed laser (n = 29)Pulsed ultrasound (n = 28)Continuous ultrasound (n = 30)Control (n = 24)
(Mean/SD)(Mean/SD)(Mean/SD)(Mean/SD)
Age (years)22.17 (4.68)22.92 (4.60)22.83 (5.22)22.37 (4.32)
BMI (kg/cm2)21.98 (2.13)21.72 (2.27)21.88 (1.64)22.03 (1.93)
Marital status (%)
 Married4 (13.8)5 (17.8)5 (16.7)2 (8.3)
 Unmarried24 (82.7)22 (78.6)24 (80.0)22 (91.7)
 Divorced1 (3.5)1 (3.6)1 (3.3)
Education (%)
 University1 (3.5)1 (3.6)1 (3.3)
 High school25 (86.0)26 (92.8)26 (86.7)20 (83.4)
 Middle school3 (10.5)1 (3.6)3 (10.0)4 (16.6)
Occupation (%)
 Student25 (86.0)25 (89.2)25 (83.5)20 (83.4)
 Other4 (14.0)3 (10.8)5 (16.5)4 (16.6)
Physical activity (%)
 Yes10 (35.7)9 (32.1)9 (30.0)8 (33.4)
Daily pain (%)31 (9.0)32.2 (9.0)43.3 (13.0)20.9 (5.0)
Pain/daily duration (h)4 (1–5)5 (3.5–5)3 (2–5)5 (2–5)
Up to 5 h (%)16 (55.2)13 (44.4)17 (56.7)10 (41.7)
All day (%)13 (44.8)15 (55.6)13 (43.3)14 (58.3)
Pain/duration (months)5 (4.7–5)5 (5–5)5 (5–5)5 (5–5)
4 to 12 (%)7 (24.1)5 (17.9)4 (13.3)5 (20.8)
Above 12 (%)22 (75.9)23 (82.1)26 (86.7)19 (79.2)
Pain on awaking (cm)2 (2–3)3 (1–3)2 (2–3)3 (1.5–3)
Yes (%)5 (17.2)10 (35.7)7 (23.3)6 (25.0)
Awaking in the night due to pain2 (2–2)2 (2–3)2 (2–2)2 (2–3)
Yes (%)3 (10.3)4 (14.3)3 (10.0)4 (16.7)
Painful positions2 (1–3)3 (2–3)2 (2–3)2 (1–3)
Sitting (%)9 (31.0)12 (42.8)7 (23.3)7 (29.2)
Orthostatic position (%)10 (34.5)6 (21.5)9 (30.0)9 (37.5)
Several positions (%)10 (34.5)10 (35.7)14 (46.7)8 (33.3)
Sudden attacks of pain (%)15 (51.8)14 (50.0)11 (36.7)13 (54.2)
Average pain/ Lasting four weeks (cm)7 (4–8)7 (6.5–8)6 (5–7)6 (4.5–8)
  1. Kg/cm2 Kilograms per square centimetre, SD standard deviation, Sup superior, BMI body mass index, % percentage. P = 0.05