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Table 2 The characteristics and demographics of the study sample used in each included article

From: Gender-specific risk factors for gout: a systematic review of cohort studies

Article Country Sample Size Incident Gout Exposure(s) Gender (%) Age (Years) Ethnicity
Bhole et al. (2010) USA 4427 304 Age, education, BMI, alcohol consumption, hypertension, medication use (diuretics, hormone replacement therapy), clinical laboratory measures (blood glucose level, blood cholesterol level), and menopause status, diabetes mellitus Men: 1951 (44%); Women: 2476 (56%) Mean 46, SD 9
Mean 47, SD 9
Burke et al. (2016) USA 6765 230 Hypertension in patients ≥65y Men: 46.2%
Women: 53.8%
≥45y
Chen et al. (2012) Taiwan 132,556 1606 Age, hyperuricemia, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes Men: 60,181 (45%); Women: 72,375 (55%) ≥18
Chen et al. (2013) Taiwan 40,513 1189 Age, hyperuricemia, general obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, renal insufficiency, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, overweight, central obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus Men: 17,957 (44%); Women: 22,556 (56%) Gout patients: mean 49.5, SD 15.1
Choi and Curhan (2008) USA 46,393 755 Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and fruit juice Men: 46,393 (100%) 40–75 91% white
Choi and Curhan (2010) USA 89,433 896 Coffee and tea consumption Women: 89,433 (100%) 30–55, mean 46, SD 7
Choi et al. (2004) USA 47,150 730 Alcohol consumption Men: 47,150 (100%) 40–75, mean 54, SD 10 91% white
Choi et al. (2004) USA 47,150 730 Purine-rich foods Men: 47,150 (100%) 40–75 91% white
Choi et al. (2005) USA 47,150 730 BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, weight change, hypertension and diuretic use Men: 47,150 (100%) 40–75, mean 54 91% white
Choi et al. (2007) USA 45,869 757 Coffee and tea consumption Men: 45,869 (100%) 40–75, mean 54, SD 10 91% white
Choi et al. (2009) USA 46,994 1317 Vitamin C consumption Men: 46,994 (100%) 40–75, mean 55, SD 10 91% white
Choi et al. (2010) USA 78,906 778 Sugar-sweetened soda, diet soda and fruit juice consumption Women: 78,906 (100%) 30–55 95% white
Grodzicki (1997) UK 2128 45 Diabetes, hypertension, diuretic use Men: 1060 (50%); Women: 1068 (50%) 18–65
Hochberg et al. (1995) USA 923 60 Race Men: 923 (100%) White: mean 26.1, SD 1.8; black: 29.0, SD 3.8 White: 571 (62%);
black: 352 (38%)
Maynard et al. (2012) USA 6263 106 BMI, obesity, waist-to-hip ratio and weight change Women: 6263 (100%) 45–64 White: 4676 (75%); black: 1587 (25%)
Maynard et al. (2014) USA 11,963 724 Race Men: 5102 (43%); Women: 6861 (75%) 45–64 White: 9143 (76%); black: 2820 (24%)
McAdams- DeMarco et al. (2011) USA 15,533 517 Age, cholesterol, blood pressure, treated hypertension, treated hypercholesterolemia, beer, wine, liquor, BMI, BMI at 21 years Men: 6100 (39%); Women: 9433 (61%) 13–87 at baseline,
≥24 at first follow-up
White: 15,533 (100%)
McAdams- DeMarco et al. (2012) USA 5789 225 Diuretic Use Men: 2445 (42%); Women: 3344 (58%) 45–64, mean 55, SD 5.7 White: 3998 (69%); black: 1791 (31%)
McAdams- DeMarco et al. (2013) USA 3524 108 Hypertension, diuretic use Men: 1649 (47%); Women: 1875 (53%) 45–64, mean 55, SD 5.6 White: 3524 (100%)
Merola et al. (2015) USA 98,810 2217 Psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis Men: 27,751 (100%)
Women: 71,059 (100%)
Psoriasis 52.1 (SD 8.4)
Psoriasis 63 (SD 6.8)
Psoriasis: White (98%)
Psoriasis: White (98.1%)
Must et al. (1992) USA 508 16 Coronary heart disease, atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease, colorectal cancer, breast cancer Men: 256 (50%); Women: 252 (50%) 6–8 at baseline, mean 53 at first used follow-up White: 508 (100%)
Niu et al. (2017) Taiwan 30,100 Anti-diabetic medication Men: 47.6%
Women: 52.4%
Non-pioglitazone mean 58.33 (SD11.96), pioglitazone 58.22 (11.87
Pan et al. (2015) Singapore 31,137 682 Hypertension Hypertensive male: 40.7%
Non-hypertensive male: 40.4%
Hypertensive median: 61.3y
Non-hypertensive median 59.3y
Hypertensive Cantonese: 50.4%
Non-hypertensive Cantonese: 49.2%
Prior et al. (1987) New Zealand 1705 46 Age, BMI, weight, height, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness, triceps skinfold thickness, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, serum uric acid Men and women included but numbers not specified ≥15 at baseline, ≥18 at first follow-up 100% Tokelauan
Rai et al. (2017) USA 44,444 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet Men: 100%
Roubenoff et al. (1991) USA 1271 60 BMI, weight gain, hypertension Men: 1216 (91%); Women: 121 (9%) Median 22 White: 1301 (97%); non-white: 36 (3%)
Tan et al. (2017) Canada 36,816 Chronic Kidney Disease Men: 41.6%
Women: 58.4%
Mean 68.8 (±3.5)
Teng et al. (2015) China 51,114 Food sources of protein Men (with gout): 55.1%
Men (without gout): 41.9%
Mean 55 (±7.4) (with gout)
Mean 55.7 (±7.7) (without gout)
Tofler and Woodings (1981) Australia 301 Alcohol consumption Men: 100% Not stated
Tu et al. (2016) Taiwan 34,025 22,350 Alcohol-related diseases Men: 70.1% Mean 48.2 (±13.2)
Wang et al. (2015) USA 4717 46 Chronic Kidney Disease Men: 46% Average age: 45 years
Wijnands et al. (2015) UK 442,234 221,117 Diabetes Mellitus Men: 39.6% 60.4y (±15.4)
Williams (2008) USA 28,990 228 BMI, diet, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, levels of uric acid Men:100% Mean 44.7, SD 10.9
  1. SD standard deviation