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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analysis for risk factors for the development of digital ulcers

From: Risk of digital ulcers occurrence in systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional study

Variable Active ulcers Univariate Multivariate
  Yes (n = 14) No (n = 56) P value P value Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Age (years), mean ± SD 41.21 ± 13.97 48.18 ± 11.86 0.078   
Gender (F/M), n 11/3 54/2 0.020   
RP duration (years) 3.86 ± 5.36 5.41 ± 6.34 0.533   
Disease duration 7.50 ± 6.29 9.89 ± 6.21 0.089   
Cutaneous subset (Diffuse/Limited), n 11/3 14/42 0.003   
Modified Rodnan score, mean ± SD 24.29 ± 11.44 10.32 ± 8.30 < 0.001   
Calcinosis, n (%) 2 (14.3) 11 (19.6) 0.004   
Puffy fingers, n (%) 2 (14.3) 11 (19.6) 0.645   
Digital pitting scars, n (%) 14 (100.0) 14 (25.0) < 0.001   
Necrosis or amputation, n (%) 3 (21.4) 1 (1.8) 0.005   
Telangiectasia, n (%) 8 (57.1) 30 (53.6) 0.810   
Arthritis, n (%) 4 (28.6) 16 (28.6) 1.000   
Hand flexion contracture, n (%) 5 (35.7) 5 (8.9) 0.010   
Esophageal involvement, n (%) 11 (78.6) 42 (75.0) 0.780   
Interstitial lung involvement, n (%) 3 (21.4) 31 (55.4) 0.023   
PAH, n (%) 0 (0.0) 7 (12.5) 0.163   
Diastolic dysfunction, n (%) 7 (50.0) 10 (17.9) 0.012   
Renal crisis, n (%) 0 (0.0) 3 (5.4) 0.376   
ACA, n (%) 2 (14.3) 25 (44.6) 0.037   
Anti-Scl-70, n (%) 11 (78.6) 10 (17.9) < 0.001 0.024 7.96 (1.32–47.99)
Anti-RNA polymerase III, n (%) 2 (14.3) 3 (5.4) 0.246   
IgG anti-annexin V, n (%) 3 (21.4) 8 (14.3) 0.669   
IgM anti-annexin V, n (%) 1 (7,1) 9 (16.1) 0.866   
Endothelin-1 serum levels (pg/ml) 2.56 ± 1.09 1.91 ± 1.89 0.003   
ESR (mmHg) 34.00 ± 14.16 29.63 ± 20.14 0.163   
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 10.53 ± 8.51 8.38 ± 9.10 0.209   
Summed MDSS score (range 0–10) 9.21 ± 2.00 5.09 ± 2.74 < 0.001   
RCS (score 0–10) 7.93 ± 0.62 4.61 ± 2.03 < 0.001   
Duration of RP attacks (minutes) 51.43 ± 25.19 16.57 ± 9.70 < 0.001   
Number of RP attacks 4.85 ± 1.88 2.21 ± 1.33 < 0.001   
HAQ-DI (score 0–3) 1.42 ± 0.34 0.61 ± 0.43 < 0.001 0.023 55.77 (1.76–1764.28)
SHAQ VAS for RP 7.93 ± 0.61 4.61 ± 0.62 < 0.001   
SHAQ VAS for digital ulcers 6.57 ± 0.85 2.63 ± 1.84 < 0.001   
  1. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation or absolute frequency (relative frequency)
  2. RP: Raynaud’s phenomenon; PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; ACA: anticentromere; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; MDSS: Medsger Disease Severity Scale; RCS: Raynaud Condition Score; HAQ-DI: Health assessment questionnaire disability index; SHAQ: Scleroderma Health assessment questionnaire; VAS: analogic visual scale