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Table 1 Characteristics of studies looking at risk factors for CMV disease in SLE patients

From: Risk factors for cytomegalovirus disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a systematic review

  Yu Xue (2016) [29] W.P Tsai (2012) [22]
Number of SLE patients with CMV disease
(n and %)
Not known 38/38 (100%)
Number of SLE patients in study population (n and %) 52/142
20/38 (52.5%) SLE patients are CMV positive
Study type CS CS
Study Duration (years) 8 Not stated
Quality review 0.82 0.75
Country China Taiwan
Gender (% females) 81% 77.7%
Age (years) Mean (SD):
Asymptomatic: 52.0 (14.7)
Symptomatic: 48.5 (16.7)
CMV SLE group: 35.6 (12.0 SD)
Non-CMV SLE group: 31.7 (11.0 SD)
How CMV disease was diagnosed Positive CMV DNA PCR AND
CMV pneumonia: clinical and radiological findings
Positive CMV antigenemia (CMV pp65 antigenemia or CMV IgM) assay and any of the following: fever, malaise, leukopenia, Diarrhea, retinitis, pneumonia, or hepatitis, a tissue biopsy specimen with a CMV-positive culture or immunohisto-chemical staining, or a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimen (6 out of 21 patients) with a positive CMV shell vial culture or the detection of CMV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Significant risk factors - Male gender
- SLE disease duration
- Bacteria pneumonia
- CD4+ T cell count
- Co-infection
- Creatinine
- Elevated ALP, ALT
- Fungal infection
- Lymphocyte count
- γ-GT
- Cyclophosphamide
- Cyclosporine
- Immunosuppressants
- Mycophenolate mofetil
- Prednisolone average dose
- Prednisolone use for recent 3 months
- Prednisolone (mg/day)
- Azathioprine (50-100 mg/day) use
Non-significant factors - Age
- CD8+ T cell count
- Leukocyte count
- Neutrophil count
- Duration of prednisolone therapy (months)
- Age
- Age of disease onset
- Disease duration
- Lymphocyte count
- SLEDAI score on admission
- Positive bacterial culture in blood or sputum
  1. CS Cross sectional, CMV Cytomegalovirus, SLE Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease, SLEDAI Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, ALP Alanine Phosphatase, ALT Alanine transaminase, AST Aspartate transaminase, γ-GT Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)