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Table 2 Physical exercise in patients with chronic stable dermatomyositis, polymyositis, or both

From: Physical exercise among patients with systemic autoimmune myopathies

Author Patients (n) Protocol (Exercises) Time (week) Evaluated Components Inflammatory markers Results
Hicks et al. [8] 1 Isometric strength 4 Isometric strength
3 MVC
↔ CPK ↑ Isometric strength
Wiesinger et al. [10] 14 Aerobic 6 VO2 peak
Isometric strength Activities of daily living
↔ CPK ↑ VO2 peak
↑ Isometric strength
↑ Activities of daily living
Wiesinger et al. [19] 13 Aerobic 24 VO2 peak
Isometric strength
Activities of daily living
↔ CPK ↑ VO2 peak
↑ Isometric strength
↑ Activities of daily living
Alexanderson et al. [23] 10 Strength
Dynamic
12 Muscle function
Walking distance
Quality of life
↔ CPK
↔ Immune / inflammatory markers
↑ Muscle function
↑ Walking distance
↑ Quality of life
aHeikkilä et al. [44] 22 Strength
Dynamic
3 Functional capacity
Pain
↔ CPK ↑ Muscle function
↔ Pain
bVarvu et al. [45] 19 Strength
Dynamic
3 Respiratory function (Spirometry)
Muscle strength
↔ CPK ↑ Respiratory function
↑ Muscle function
Harris-Love et al. [46] 1 Strength
Eccentric
12 Isometric strength ↔ Muscle enzymes ↑ Isometric strength
↑ Concentric strength
Alexanderson et al. [23] 8 Strength
Dynamic
7 10–15 MVC
Functional capacity
↔ CPK ↑ 10–15 MVC
↔ Disease activity
↔ Functional capacity
Dastmalchi et al. [14] 9 Aerobic
Strength
12 Type of muscle fiber Quality of life
Functional capacity
Not reported ↑ Type I Fiber
↑ Functional Capacity
↑ Quality of Life
Chung et al. [47] 37 Strength
Dynamic
Creatine supplementation
20 Functional capacity Muscle strength
Quality of life
Pain and fatigue
Anxiety and depression
↔ CPK ↑ Functional capacity
↑ Muscle strength
↔ Quality of life
↔ Anxiety and depression
↔ Pain and fatigue
Nader et al. [21] 8 Strength
Dynamic
7 Genes related to inflammation and fibrosis ↓ CPK ↓ Genes related to inflammation and fibrosis
↓ Tissue fibrosis
Munters et al. [12] 9 Aerobic 12 Aerobic capacity
Activity of mitochondrial enzymes
↔ CPK ↑ Aerobic capacity
↑ Activity of mitochondrial enzymes
Munters et al. [20] 11 Aerobic 12 Aerobic capacity Disability
Disease activity
Quality of life
5 MVC
↔ CPK ↓ Disease activity
↑ Muscle strength
↑ Quality of life
↑ Aerobic capacity
↑ Quality of life
Mattar et al. [25] 13 Strength
Dynamic
Vascular occlusion
12 Muscle strength Functional capacity
Quality of life
↔ CPK↔ Aldolase ↑ Muscle strength
↑ Functional capacity
↑ Quality of life
Munters et al. [22] 15 Aerobic 12 Aerobic capacity
Proteomic analysis
Molecular profile
↔ CPK ↑ Aerobic capacity
↑ Genes related to capillary growth, mitochondrial biogenesis, protein synthesis, cytoskeletal remodeling and muscular hypertrophy
↑ Genes related to the immune and inflammatory response and sarcoplasmic reticulum stress
  1. CPK creatine phosphokinase, DM dermatomyositis, PM polymyositis, MVC maximum voluntary contraction, VO 2 peak oxygen consumption, ↑: increase, ↔: no change, ↓: decrease
  2. a included patients with inclusion body myositis
  3. b included patients with active disease