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Table 2 Summary of descriptive characteristics of included articles (n = 3)

From: The impact of a low-calorie, low-glycemic diet on systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review

Author, year, country Participants (n, inclusion criteria) Intervention Outcomes Risk of bias assessment
Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of participants and personnel Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Other bias
Davies et al., 2012, United Kingdom [4] 23 women diagnosed with SLE and classified according to the ACR criteria. Aged 18–65 years, with mild and stable disease, body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2 and stable prednisolone doses 5–20 mg/day All patients were advised on dietary treatment by the same dietician
- 11 subjects were assigned to the Low GI diet, whereby carbohydrate intake was limited to 45 g per day of low GI food, without restricting the consumption of fat and protein
12 subjects were assigned to a conventional
Low Cal diet with calorie restriction of 2000 kcal per day, approximately 50% of calories from carbohydrate, 15% from protein and 30% from fat
Dietetic support was given in the form of a weekly telephone call
At baseline and at 6 weeks
Disease activity:
British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index, the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), the European Community Lupus Activity Measure (ECLAM) and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage scores
Fatigue and sleep quality: Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
Fasting blood Samples: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride level, serum lipoprotein A, homocysteine, fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and uric acid; oral glucose tolerance test; urine was dip-tested for ketones, blood and protein at baseline and on follow-up
Low risk High risk High risk High risk Low risk Unclear Low risk
Shah et al., 2002, United States [5] 17 women diagnosed with SLE for at least six months, have an LDL cholesterol level ≥ 100 mg/dl, and be able to read Diet intervention group:counselled to follow the National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 diet
Duration: 12 weeks; weekly sessions during the first 6 weeks, followed by telephone counselling sessions every 2 weeks for the next 6 weeks
Control group: any dietary advice. Both groups were asked to maintain their usual level of physical activity
Lipid and lipoproteins, body weight, physical activity day food record and quality of life at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks Low risk High risk High risk High risk Low risk Unclear Low risk
Silva et al., 2018, Brazil [7] 31 adolescents with JSLE for at least six months with any clinical manifestation or any degree of disease activity The nutritional intervention: six steps at monthly intervals and three reinforcement visits
(1) general orientation on dietary behaviour; (2) notions of healthy eating based on food rotation; (3) emphases on adequate carbohydrate and fat intake; (4) orientation on adequate salt, sugar, sweetener; (5) qualitative changes emphasizing fruit and vegetable; (6) orientation on lifestyle, sedentary, leisure activities, parties and other events
Height for age
Day food record
Low risk Low risk High risk High risk Low risk Unclear Unclear
  1. SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus; ACR = American College of Rheumatology; GI = glycaemic index; BILAG = British Isles Lupus Assessment Group; SLEDAI = Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; ECLAM = European Community Lupus Activity Measure; SLICC/ACR/DI = Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology/Damage index; FSS = Fatigue Severity Scale; PSQIP = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; JSLE = juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus; BMI = body mass index; SLEDAI-2K = Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000