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Table 2 Main rheumatic diseases and concomitant medication at baseline

From: Chronic use of hydroxychloroquine did not protect against COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases in Brazil

  N (%)
Rheumatic disease  
Systemic lupus erythematous 4243 (82.5)
Rheumatoid arthritis 402 (7.8)
Primary Sjögren syndrome 192 (3.7)
Mixed connective tissue disease 75 (1.5)
Osteoarthritis 66 (1.3)
Systemic sclerosis 43 (0.8)
Inflammatory myopathies 34 (0.7)
Chikungunya 18 (0.4)
Other 69 (1.3)
Antimalarials  
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) 5035 (97.5)
HCQ use time (years), mean (SD) 7.2 (6.2)
Chloroquine diphosphate (CD) 131 (2.5)
CD use time (years), mean (SD) 10.6 (7.4)
Concomitant medication related to RD  
Glucocorticoids 1895 (36.7)
 < 10 mg/day 1394 (73.6)
 ≥ 10 mg/day 462 (24.4)
Ibuprofen 35 (0.7)
IV Methylprednisolone (pulse) 30 (0.6)
Cyclophosphamide (oral and pulse) 73 (1.4)
Synthetic conventional DMARDs 2444 (47.3)
Methotrexate 631 (12.2)
Sulfasalazine 16 (0.3)
Azathioprine 983 (19.0)
Leflunomide 96 (1.9)
Cyclosporine 80 (1.5)
Mycophenolate mofetil 657 (12.7)
Biological or target-specific DMARDs 181 (3.5)
TNF inhibitors 17 (0.3)
Belimumab 52 (1.0)
Rituximab 81 (1.6)
Abatacept 17 (0.3)
Tocilizumab 7 (0.1)
Tofacitinib 7 (0.1)
  1. The results are expressed as means, standard deviation and percentages; DMARDs, disease activity-modifying drugs; some individuals are taking more than one synthetic DMARD