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Table 1 Epidemiological and clinical data between patients with rheumatic diseases and household contacts at baseline

From: Chronic use of hydroxychloroquine did not protect against COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases in Brazil

Variables All RD patients Household co-habitants Difference (CI 95%) p*
N = 9589 N = 5166 N = 4423
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age, years (SD) 43.5 (14.9) 43.1 (13.9) 44.0 (16.1) 0.90 (0.29; 1.50) 0.039
Sex      
Women 6617 (69.4) 4772 (92.6) 1845 (42.2) 50.4 (48.8; 52.0)  < 0.001
Men 2912 (30.6) 382 (7.4) 2530 (57.8)   
Schooling      
Basic or illiterate 2522 (26.5) 1296 (25.1) 1226 (28) 2.9 (1.1; 4.7)  < 0.001
High school 4027 (42.2) 2166 (42) 1861 (42.6) 0.6 (− 1.39; 2.6)  
College 2983 (31.3) 1697 (32.9) 1286 (29.4) 3.5 (1.6; 5.4)  
Profession      
Customer assistance 1911 (20.2) 946 (18.5) 965 (22.2) 3.7 (2.1; 5.3)  < 0.001
Healthcare 683 (7.2) 443 (8.7) 240 (5.5) 3.2 (2.2; 4.2)  
Safety professionals 182 (1.9) 43 (0.8) 139 (3.2) 2.4 (1.8; 3.0)  
Education 636 (6.7) 438 (8.6) 198 (4.6) 4.0 (3.0; 4.9)  
Housewife 1662 (17.6) 1236 (24.2) 426 (9.8) 14.4 (12.9; 15.9)  
Others 4382 (46.3) 2011 (39.3) 2371 (54.6) 15.3 (13.3; 17.3)  
Contact with confirmed case of COVID-19      
No 8136 (85.3) 4484 (86.9) 3652 (83.4) 3.5 (2.1; 4.9)  < 0.001
Yes 727 (7.6) 380 (7.4) 347 (7.9) 0.5 (− 0.6; 1.6)  
Unknown 673 (7.1) 294 (5.7) 379 (8.7) 3.0 (1.9; 4.1)  
Family unit in social distancing 5787 (60.7) 3235 (62.7) 2552 (58.4) 4.3 (2.3; 6.3)  < 0.001
Heart disease 496 (5.3) 314 (6.2) 182 (4.3) 1.9 (1.0; 2.8)  < 0.001
Diabetes 703 (7.5) 339 (6.7) 364 (8.5) 1.8 (0.7; 2.9)  < 0.001
Lung disease 497 (5.3) 357 (7) 140 (3.3) 3.7 (2.8; 4;6)  < 0.001
Kidney disease 602 (6.4) 565 (11.1) 37 (0.9) 10.2 (9.3; 11.1)  < 0.001
Hypertension 2673 (28.6) 1692 (33.3) 981 (23) 10.3 (8.5; 12.1)  < 0.001
Influenza vaccine within last 30 days 2584 (27.2) 1527 (29.6) 1057 (24.2) 5.4 (3.6; 7.2)  < 0.001
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. The results are expressed as means, standard deviation and percentages
  3. CI, confidence interval; RD, rheumatic diseases; COVID-19, Coronavirus disease 2019
  4. *Chi-square test