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Table 5 The clinical characteristics in patients with SLE flare

From: Risk factors for the flare of systemic lupus erythematosus and its influence on prognosis: a single-center retrospective analysis

  patient’s self-discontinuation (n = 65 Case) regular maintenance therapy
(n = 56 Case)
P-value
Age (Year), mean (SD) 38.5(12.5) 41.6(13.7) 0.396
Gender (female/male) 61/4 52/4 1.000
Disease duration (Month), mean (SD) 91.6(82.3) 95.0(78.1) 0.926
SLEDAI-2 k of first onset (score), mean (SD) 10.9(3.8) 12.4(4.4) 0.072
Initial treatment
 glucocorticoid amount (mg/kg/d), mean (SD) 0.9(0.3) 1.0(1.3) 0.153
 Hydroxychloroquine, n (%) 52(80.0) 46(82.1) 0.819
 Immunosuppressive therapy, n (%) 27(41.5) 22(39.3) 0.854
Regular maintenance treatment / 56 /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) / 8 /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ / 20 /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + MMF / 6 /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + AZA / 9 /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + MTX / 10 /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + CsA / 2 /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d)HCQ + FK-506 / 1 /
Characteristics of SLE flare
Flare degree (mild moderate / severe, n/n) 10/55 18/38 0.033
 SLEDAI-2 k (Score), mean (SD) 13.1(6.6) 10.5(5.6) 0.140
 SDI1, mean (SD) 0.20(0.44) 0.25(0.48) 0.270
SDI2, mean (SD) 2.06(1.45) 1.21(1.07) 0.042*
SDI increment a, mean (SD) 1.86(1.26) 0.96(0.89) 0.011*
Clinical symptoms of flare, n (%)
 Fever 16(24.6) 13(23.2) 1.000
 Rash 17(26.2) 18(32.1) 0.548
 Arthritis 12(18.5) 11(19.6) 1.000
 oral ulcer 5(7.7) 5(9.0) 1.000
Serositis 26(40.0) 9(16.1) 0.005*
 Leukopenia b 15(23.1) 15(26.8) 0.677
Anemia associated with SLE c 36(55.4) 14(25.0) 0.001*
 Thrombocytopenia d 14(21.5) 12(21.4) 1.000
 Vasculitis 10(15.4) 3(5.4) 0.086
 Lupus nephritis 38(58.5) 23(41.1) 0.069
 Neuropsychiatric lupus 11(16.9) 14(25.0) 0.368
 Lupus pneumonia 12(18.5) 7(12.5) 0.456
Pulmonary hypertension 17(26.2) 3(5.4) 0.003*
 Lupus related cardiac damage 9(13.8) 4(7.1) 0.378
 Lupus related gastrointestinal damage 8(12.3) 6(10.7) 1.000
  1. N Number of cases; SLEDAI-2 K Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index-2000; SDI systemic lupus international collaborating clinics and the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic and therapeutic criteria committee damage index; SDI1 SDI at the time of complete or clinical response; SDI2 SDI at the last hospitalization; HCQ Hydroxychloroquine; MMF Mycophenolate mofetil; AZA Azathioprine; MTX Methotrexate; CsA Cyclosporine A; FK-506 Tacrolimus. a: SDI2-SDI1, ‘SDI at the last hospitalization’ – ‘SDI at the time of complete or clinical response’. b: white blood count < 4.0 × 109/L. c: hemoglobin < 110 g/L. d: platelet count < 100 × 109/L. *: P < 0.05