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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and treatment in patients with SLE flare or sustained remission of SLE

From: Risk factors for the flare of systemic lupus erythematosus and its influence on prognosis: a single-center retrospective analysis

  SLE flare group
(n = 121 Case)
comparison group (n = 98 Case) P-value
Age (Year), mean (SD) 39.9(13.1) 42.7(13.8) 0.431
Gender (female/male) 113/8 84/14 0.072
Disease duration (Month), mean (SD) 93.2(80.1) 78.6(44.9) < 0.001*
Infection 54(44.6) 2(2.4) < 0.001*
Flare degree
 Mild and moderate SLE flare, n (%) 28 (23.1)   
 Severe SLE flare, n (%) 93 (76.9)   
Initial symptom, n (%)
 Fever 36(29.8) 32(32.7) 0.662
 Rash 68(56.2) 63(64.3) 0.268
 Arthritis 67(55.4) 42(42.9) 0.078
 oral ulcer 26(21.5) 21(21.4) 1.000
 Hair loss 23(19.0) 14(14.3) 0.372
 Serositis 24(19.8) 21(21.4) 0.867
 Leucopenia a 18(14.9) 14(14.3) 1.000
 Thrombocytopenia b 19(15.7) 7(7.1) 0.060
 Lupus nephritis 31(25.6) 28(28.6) 0.648
 Neuropsychiatric lupus 8(6.6) 7(7.1) 1.000
 Lupus pneumonia 3(2.5) 0 0.255
 Lupus related cardiac damage 0 1(1.0) 0.447
 Lupus related gastrointestinal damage 3(2.5) 0 0.255
Antiphospholipid syndrome 6(5.0) 0 0.034*
 SLEDAI-2 k (score), mean (SD) 11.6(4.1) 10.4(4.2) 0.800
Initial serological indicators
 ANA (s/co), mean (SD) 4.6(2.7) 4.7(3.1) 0.336
 ds-DNA (IU/ml), mean (SD) 490.8(260.1) 545.4(244.0) 0.919
 Anti-RNP, n (%) 55(45.4) 42(42.9) 0.785
Anti-SM, n (%) 35(28.9) 14(14.3) 0.014*
 Anti-SSA, n (%) 82(67.8) 56(57.1) 0.122
 Anti-SSB, n (%) 27(22.3) 21(21.4) 1.000
Anti-nu, n (%) 46(38.0) 14(14.3) < 0.001*
 Anti-rRNP, n (%) 38(29.0) 21(21.4) 0.125
 aCL-IgM, n (%) 4(3.3) 7(7.1) 0.226
aCL-IgG, n (%) 6(5.0) 0 0.034*
Anti-β2GPI-IgG, n (%) 20(16.5) 7(7.1) 0.040*
LA (n, %) 13(10.7) 0 < 0.001*
Initial treatment
 The median time of achieving the clinical remission (Month), mean (SD) 3.17 ± 0.70 3.05 ± 0.65 0.661
 SLE patients with Complete remission, n (%) 5(4.1) 7(7.1) 0.380
 Glucocorticoid amount (mg/kg/d), mean (SD) 0.9(0.9) 0.9(0.4) 0.323
 initial glucocorticoid amount > 0.8 mg/kg/d, n (%) 23(19.0) 21(21.4) 0.735
 Glucocorticoid cumulative at the time of achieving clinical remission (mg), mean (SD) 1780.8 ± 1016.1 1808.0 ± 1049.3 0.416
Hydroxychloroquine, n (%) 98(81.0) 91(92.9) 0.017*
Immunosuppressive agent treatment, n (%) 49(40.5) 70(57.9) < 0.001*
  CTX 13 (10.7) 21(21.4) 0.837
  MMF 9 (7.4) 7(7.1) 0.275
  AZA 10 (8.3) 17(17.3) 0.663
  MTX 11 (9.1) 13(13.3) 0.647
  FK-506 2 (1.7) 8(8.2) 0.194
  CsA 4 (3.3) 4(4.1) 0.716
Treatment during follow-up
patient’s self-discontinuation of medicine maintenance therapy, n (%) 65(53.7) 7(7.1) < 0.001*
Regular maintenance therapy before SLE flare 56(46.3) 91(93.8) < 0.001*
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) 8(6.6) 24(24.5) /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ 20(16.5) 32(32.7) /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + MMF 6(5.0) 7(7.1) /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + AZA 9(7.4) 11(11.2) /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + MTX 10(8.3) 11(11.2) /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d) + HCQ + CsA 2(1.7) 3(3.0) /
  Prednisone(≤5 mg/d)HCQ + FK-506 1(0.8) 3(3.0) /
  1. N: Number of cases; *: P value < 0.05; a: white blood count < 4.0 × 109/L; b: platelet count < 100 × 109/L; SLEDAI-2 K Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index-2000; ANA antinuclear antibodies; ds-DNA: Anti double-stranded DNA antibody; Anti-RNP anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody; Anti-SM anti-Smith antibody; Anti-SSA anti-Sjogren’s syndrome antigen A antibody; Anti-SSB anti-Sjogren’s syndrome antigen B antibody; Anti-nu anti-nucleosome antibody; Anti-rRNP anti-ribosomal RNP antibody; anti-β2GPI anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibody; aCL anti-cardiolipin antibody; IgG immunoglobulin G; IgM immunoglobulin M; LA Lupus anticoagulant; HCQ Hydroxychloroquine; CTX Cyclophosphamide; MMF Mycophenolate mofetil; AZA Azathioprine; MTX Methotrexate; CsA Cyclosporine A; FK-506 Tacrolimus