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Table 2 Characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review

From: Intestinal microbiota and active systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review

Author/year Location Type of Study Participants Gender Method of Microbial Analysis SLEDAI cut-off score used to define active SLE Results
Chen et al. 2020 China prospective cohort 117 patients with untreated SLE, 52 patients with SLE post-treatment; 115 healthy controls. Female and Male DNA of stool samples using RNAr 16S sequencing Not informed • Disease activity and microbial diversity decreased significantly after treatment.
• ↓ microbial richness and uniformity in untreated SLE compared with control group.
• Seven species1 of markers enriched in patients with untreated SLE and reduced after treatment.
• Post-treatment microbial composition is more similar to that in control group.
He et al. 2016 China cross-sectional 45 patients untreated SLE and 48 healthy controls Female DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing Not informed • ↑ phyla: Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.
• ↓ phyla: Firmicutes in individuals with untreated SLE.
Li et al. 2019 China prospective cohort 19 patients with SLE in activity, 21 in remission, and 22 healthy controls. Female DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing Active SLE patients: SLEDAI ≥8 • Dysbiosis and constitution of microbial community was different in SLE in activity and SLE in remission, however, microbial diversity is the same.
• ↓ Bifidobacterium genus and Ruminococcus.gnavus species in active SLE when compared with SLE in remission.
• ↑ six genera2 as well as Proteobacteria phylum in SLE in activity compared to healthy controls.
Lactobacillus genus associated with more serious diseases.
Luo et al. 2018 USA prospective cohort 14 patients with SLE in activity and 17 healthy controls Female and Male DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing Active SLE patients: SLEDAI ≥8 • ↓ microbial diversity in SLE in activity.
• ↑ Proteobacteria phylum, ↑ Odoribacter and Blautia genera and an unnamed genus (Rikenellaceae family) in SLE in activity.
Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratios did not differ in microbiota between SLE and non-SLE.
Hevia et al. 2014 Spain cross-sectional 20 patients with SLE in remission and 20 healthy controls Female DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing Active SLE patients: SLEDAI ≥8 • Dysbiosis in SLE in activity compared to SLE in remission
• ↑ three genera3 and Bacteroidetes phylum, ↓Firmicutes ratio in patients with SLE in remission.
• ↑ Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae in healthy controls
  1. ↑ greater quantity or enrichment
  2. ↓lower quantity or depleted
  3. Notes: 1Clostridium sp. ATCC BAA-442, Atopobium rimae, Shuttleworthia satelles, Actinomyces massiliensis, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium leptum, and one non-classified Escherichia.
  4. 2 Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Megasphaera, Fusobacterium, Veillonella and Oribacterium.
  5. 3Dialister, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Bifidobacterium.