|Author/year Location||Type of Study||Participants||Gender||Method of Microbial Analysis||SLEDAI cut-off score used to define active SLE||Results|
|Chen et al. 2020 China||prospective cohort||117 patients with untreated SLE, 52 patients with SLE post-treatment; 115 healthy controls.||Female and Male||DNA of stool samples using RNAr 16S sequencing||Not informed||
• Disease activity and microbial diversity decreased significantly after treatment.|
• ↓ microbial richness and uniformity in untreated SLE compared with control group.
• Seven species1 of markers enriched in patients with untreated SLE and reduced after treatment.
• Post-treatment microbial composition is more similar to that in control group.
|He et al. 2016 China||cross-sectional||45 patients untreated SLE and 48 healthy controls||Female||DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing||Not informed||
• ↑ phyla: Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.|
• ↓ phyla: Firmicutes in individuals with untreated SLE.
|Li et al. 2019 China||prospective cohort||19 patients with SLE in activity, 21 in remission, and 22 healthy controls.||Female||DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing||Active SLE patients: SLEDAI ≥8||
• Dysbiosis and constitution of microbial community was different in SLE in activity and SLE in remission, however, microbial diversity is the same.|
• ↓ Bifidobacterium genus and Ruminococcus.gnavus species in active SLE when compared with SLE in remission.
• ↑ six genera2 as well as Proteobacteria phylum in SLE in activity compared to healthy controls.
• Lactobacillus genus associated with more serious diseases.
|Luo et al. 2018 USA||prospective cohort||14 patients with SLE in activity and 17 healthy controls||Female and Male||DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing||Active SLE patients: SLEDAI ≥8||
• ↓ microbial diversity in SLE in activity.|
• ↑ Proteobacteria phylum, ↑ Odoribacter and Blautia genera and an unnamed genus (Rikenellaceae family) in SLE in activity.
• Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratios did not differ in microbiota between SLE and non-SLE.
|Hevia et al. 2014 Spain||cross-sectional||20 patients with SLE in remission and 20 healthy controls||Female||DNA of stool sample using RNAr 16S sequencing||Active SLE patients: SLEDAI ≥8||
• Dysbiosis in SLE in activity compared to SLE in remission|
• ↑ three genera3 and Bacteroidetes phylum, ↓Firmicutes ratio in patients with SLE in remission.
• ↑ Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae in healthy controls