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Table 2 Characteristics and results of the selected experimental models of systemic sclerosis

From: Dualities of the vitamin D in systemic sclerosis: a systematic literature review

Author Year Research Design Main results
Slominski et al. [44] 2013 Culture of skin fibroblasts from patients and controls Efficacy of vitamin D in inhibiting TGF-induced collagen synthesis and inhibiting cell proliferation in fibroblasts from patients and controls; vitamin D suppressed fibrogenesis in a bleomycin-induced sclerosis model.
Terao et al. [45] 2015 Experimental model Effect of vitamin D analogue on periostin expression in fibroblasts and bleomycin-induced sclerosis model; maxacalcitol reduces the expression of periostin and TGF-β and suppresses the Th2 response.
Usategui et al. [46] 2014 Cutaneous fibrosis in animal model Effect of the topical analogue of vitamin D (calcipotriol) on cytokines and the development of fibrosis in rats with bleomycin-induced sclerosis; calcipotriol overexpressed Th2 axis expression, with antifibrotic effect.
Zerr et al. [47] 2014 Culture of skin fibroblasts from patients and controls Expression of VDR in experimental model and fibroblasts; effect of paricalcitol on bleomycin-induced fibrosis model and overexpression of TGF-β receptor (TBRICA); VDR characterization as a negative regulator of TGF-β / Smad pathway signaling.
  1. Abbreviations: TGF-β transforming growth factor β, VDR Vitamin D receptor