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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of HCY levels in AS

From: Association of homocysteine with ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups   N SMD (95% CI) Z P Heterogeneity test
      P I2 (%)
Region Asia 4 0.974 (−0.573, 2.521) 1.23 0.217 < 0.001 98.1%
Asia + Europe (Turkey) 3 0.018 (− 0.661, 0.698) 0.05 0.958 < 0.001 91.4%
Europe/America 2 0.148 (−0.484, 0.780) 0.46 0.646 0.055 73.0%
Combined 9 0.463 (−0.300, 1.226) 1.19 0.234 < 0.001 97.3%
Sample size ≥ 50 6 0.708 (−0.283, 1.700) 1.40 0.162 < 0.001 98.1%
<  50 2 −0.269 (− 0.632, 0.093) 1.46 0.145 0.891 0.0%
Combined 8 0.471 (−0.355, 1.298) 1.12 0.264 < 0.001 97.6%
Disease activity active 3 0.048 (−0.904, 1.000) 0.10 0.921 < 0.001 92.0%
inactive 3 0.078 (−0.733, 0.889) 0.19 0.851 < 0.001 89.0%
Combined 6 0.059 (−0.488, 0.606) 0.21 0.833 < 0.001 88.5%
Smoking Smoker 1 0.497 (−0.066, 1.060) 1.73 0.084 NA NA
Non-smoker 1 0.201 (−0.355, 0.757) 0.71 0.478 NA NA
Combined 2 0.347 (−0.048, 0.743) 1.72 0.085 0.464 0.0%
MTHFR C677T genotype CC 2 1.599 (−0.864, 4.062) 1.27 0.203 < 0.001 98.1%
CT 2 1.693(−1.256, 4.642) 1.13 0.260 < 0.001 97.7%
TT 2 2.771(−1.141, 6.682) 1.39 0.165 < 0.001 92.2%
Combined 6 1.992 (0.663, 3.320) 2.94 0.003 < 0.001 95.7%
Treatment NSAIDs 2 −0.365(− 1.020, 0.291) 1.09 0.275 0.092 64.8%
SSZ 2 0.024 (−0.872, 0.920) 0.05 0.958 0.003 88.7%
SSZ + MTX 1 0.915 (0.312, 1.518) 2.97 0.003 NA NA
Anti-TNF-α 1 −0.774 (−1.163, − 0.385) 3.90 < 0.001 NA NA
Combined 6 −0.094 (− 0.634, 0.445) 0.34 0.732 0.000 87.7%
  1. HCY Homocysteine, NA Not available, MTHFR Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, NSAIDs Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, SSZ Sulfasalazine, MTX Methotrexate, TNF Tumor necrosis factor