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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of cases and controls treated with biologic DMARDs

From: Risk factors for losing hepatitis B virus surface antibody in patients with HBV surface antigen negative/surface antibody positive serostatus receiving biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs: a nested case-control study

Data show mean ± standard deviation, mean [range], or number (%) Cases Controls
Number 23 311
Age (years) 52.2 ± 17.9 47.5 ± 14.2
Sex
 Female 15 (65.2%) 148 (47.6%)
 Male 8 (34.8%) 163 (52.4%)
Rheumatic disease
 Rheumatoid arthritis 13 (56.5%) 155 (49.8%)
 Ankylosing spondylitis 5 (21.7%) 100 (32.2%)
 Psoriatic arthritis/Psoriasis 4 (17.4%) 52 (16.7%)
 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 1 (4.4%) 4 (1.3%)
Detectable HBV DNA (≥10 IU/ml) 0 0
Anti-HBV core antigen positive 15 (65.2%) 189 (60.8%)
Baseline serum anti-HBs titer (mIU/ml)
 Mean [Min–Max] 22.6 [10.1–64.7] 284.5 [11.5–1000]a
 ≤ 100 23 (100%) 128 (41.2%)
 > 100 0 183 (58.8%)
Biologic DMARDs
 Anti-TNF (Etanercept, Adalimumab, Golimumab) 14 (60.9%) 231 (74.3%)
 Not anti-TNF 9 (39.1%) 80 (25.7%)
  Abatacept 1 (4.4%) 11 (3.5%)
  Rituximab 1 (4.4%) 11 (3.5%)
  Tocilizumab 2 (8.7%) 12 (3.9%)
  Tofacitinib 3 (13.0%) 19 (6.1%)
  Ustekinumab 2 (8.7%) 25 (8.0%)
  Secukinumab 0 2 (0.6%)
Conventional DMARDs (accumulated dose)
 Methotrexate (mg) 536 ± 869 537 ± 734
 Leflunomide (mg) 748 ± 2083 707 ± 3021
 Sulfasalazine (g) 350 ± 354 242 ± 318
 Hydroxychloroquine (g) 67 ± 102 54 ± 100
 Cyclosporine (g) 9 ± 22 8 ± 27
Prednisolone (accumulated dose, mg) 2244 ± 2614 1422 ± 1910
Comorbidities
 Prior alanine transaminase elevationb 2 (8.7%) 10 (3.2%)
 Hepatitis C virus antibody positive 2 (8.7%) 11 (3.5%)
 Diabetes mellitus 4 (17.4%) 12 (3.9%)
 Chronic liver disease 5 (21.7%) 30 (9.7%)
 Chronic kidney disease 3 (13.0%) 3 (1.0%)
  1. HBV Hepatitis B virus, DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, Anti-HBs HBV surface antibody, IU International Units, DMARD Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, TNF Tumor necrosis factor
  2. aMaximum detectable limit
  3. bMore than five-fold upper reference of 40 IU/L