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Table 1 – Demographic and clinical features, laboratory parameters, disease activity, damage scores and death rates comparison in childhood-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (c-SLE) patients with and without early onset lupus nephritis (ELN)

From: Comparison of urinary parameters, biomarkers, and outcome of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus early onset-lupus nephritis

Variablesn of cases
427
cSLE with ELNn of cases
419
cSLE without ELNp-Value
Onset age (y) 11.6 ± 2.8 11.7 ± 3.20.65
0–6 y n (%) 17 (3.9) 21 (5)0.74
6–12 y n (%) 206 (48.2) 196 (46.7)0.74
>  12 y n (%) 198 (46.3) 194 (46.3)0.74
Female n (%) 357 (83.6) 360 (86)0.18
Caucasian n (%)407274 (67.3)405304 (72.5)0.03*
Non-Caucasian n (%)407133 (32.7)405101 (24.9)0.03*
SLEDAI-2 K (mean, SD) median (20 ± 8) 20 (12 ± 7) 11< 0.001*
Acute renal failure (ARF) n (%) 94 (22) 0< 0.001*
Chronic renal failure (CRF) n (%) 17 (4) 00.0002*
Arterial hypertension n (%) 181 (42.3) 18 (4.2)< 0.001*
Haematuria n (%) 309 (72.3) 56 (13.36)< 0.001*
Pyuria n (%) 223 (52.2) 49 (11.7)< 0.001*
Urine Casts n (%) 153 (35.8) 21 (5)< 0.001*
Proteinuria n (%) 191 (44.7) 67 (16)< 0.001*
24 h Proteinuria (g/day) (mean, SD)191(1.5 ± 2.9)225(0.12 ± 0.18)< 0.001*
Low C3 n (%)301198 (65.7)303174 (57.4)0.01*
Low C4 n (%)265183 (69)280183 (65.3)0.07
Low CH50 n (%)9162 (68.1)5435 (65)0.07
C3 (mg/dl) (mean, SD)301(60 ± 36)303(73 ± 38)0.05
C4 (mg/dl) (mean, SD)265(12 ± 14)280(12 ± 10)0.18
CH50 (U/ml) (mean, SD)91(87 ± 79)54(110 ± 84)0.07
ESR mm/h (mean, SD)343(42 ± 35)346(49 ± 32)0.02*
CRP mg% (mean, SD)179(5 ± 7)217(4 ± 6)0.49
Anti-dsDNA antibodies n (%)381286 (75)397253 (63.7)0.0001*
Anti-Sm antibodies n (%)312106 (34)317124 (39)0.14
Anti-RNP antibodies n (%)29573 (24.7)29879 (26.5)0.46
Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies n (%)28088 (31.4)29893 (31.2)0.88
Anti-La/SSB antibodies n (%)27437 (13.5)29041 (14)0.90
SLICC/DI (range) median (0–9) 1 (0–3) 00.004*
Disease duration (y) (mean, SD) (4.2 ± 3.6) (4.2 ± 3.5)0.80
Death n (%)40499 (24)41918 (4)< 0.0001*
  1. CH50–50% hemolytic activity of Complement, SLEDAI-2 K- SLE Disease Activity Index 2000, SLICC/DI - Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR-Damage Index, anti-dsDNA - anti-double-stranded DNA
  2. * significant values of p< 0.05