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Table 1 – Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of FM patients and controls (n = 216)

From: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia

Characteristics FM(n = 108) Controls (n = 108) p
Age (years) 50.2 ± 9.5 49.5 ± 9.5 0.582
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 28.2 ± 4.6 27.0 ± 4.9 0.073
Years of education 10.3 ± 4.2 12.2 ± 4.1 0.001
White skin color 87 (80.6) 88 (81.5) 0.862
Functional situation    0.002
 Employed 52 (48.1) 76 (70.4)  
 Unemployed 17 (15.7) 14 (13.0)  
 Retired 36 (33.3) 18 (16.7)  
 Other 3 (2.8) 0 (0.0)  
FM diagnosis time (years) 6.4 ± 5.4
Alcohol consumption 55 (50.9)
 Number of times during the month (mean) 1.2 ± 2.2
Smoke 22 (20.4)
Contraceptive pill 19 (17.6)
Psychiatric disordera 73 (67.6)
 Mood disorders 57 (52.8)
 Anxiety disorders 39 (36.1)
 Other 4 (3.7)
Psychological or psychiatric treatment 35 (32.4)
Rheumatic or musculoskeletal condition (n = 80)a 64 (80.0)
Hypertension 36 (33.3)
Diabetes mellitus 9 (8.3)
Medications aiming pain reliefb 88 (81.5)
Central Nervous System active medication 77 (71.3)
Physical exercise 56 (51.9)
 Number of days per week 1.6 ± 1.9
 Aerobic exercise 32 (29.6)
 Anaerobic exercise 11 (10.2)
 Aerobic and anaerobic exercise 13 (12.0)
Alternative practice for management pain 63 (58.3)
Psychological assessment, sleep quality, resilience, quality of life and CS symptoms
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI – II) 22.0 ± 12.7 3.5 ± 2.8 < 0.001
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
 State - anxiety 28.1 ± 7.8 19.8 ± 5.4 < 0.001
 Trace - anxiety 24.4 ± 5.2 16.4 ± 3.0 < 0.001
Total Brazilian Portuguese Catastrophizing Scale (BP-PCS) 32.5 ± 12.2
 BP-PCS - Helplessness 14.2 ± 6.0
 BP-PCS - Magnification 7.5 ± 3.4
 BP-PCS - Rumination 10.7 ± 3.6
Resilience 128.3 ± 22.5
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI - BR) 10.8 ± 4.3
Central Sensitization (CSI-BP) 58.0 ± 14.8
Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) 61.2 ± 18.1
  1. Notes. Data are reported as number of subjects (% in parentheses) or mean and standard deviation (± S.D.). Student’s t test or Mann-Whitney test were used for continuous data and Chi-square test was used for categorical data
  2. a Multiple response
  3. b Analgesics