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Table 2 Comparison of the treated groups pre- and post-treatment and the control group for the evaluation and re-evaluation

From: Comparison of the effects of low-level laser and pulsed and continuous ultrasound on pain and physical disability in chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial

VariablesPulsed laser (n = 26)
Median (25–75%)
Pulsed ultrasound (n = 24)
Median (25–75%)
Continuous ultrasound (n = 26)
Median (25–75%)
Control (n = 24)
Median (25–75%)
p
Pain (VAS) (0–10 cm)
 Pre5.7 (4.8–7)6 (4.2–6.9)5.9 (4.9–6,7)6 (5–7)0.791
 Post0.5 (0.1–8) *+#1.4 (0.8–3) *¥€1.1 (0.4–7) +¥£6.3 (5–7.2) #€£0.001
 Difference between groups4.8 (1.3) *3.7 (2.0) +3.7 (2.0) #−0.2 (1.7) *+#0.001
Pain (McGill – total) (0–67)
 Pre23.5 (18–33)28.5 (24–34.5)24 (20–29)24 (20–30.5)0.213
 Post9.5 (3–23) *13.5 (2.5–24.5) +12 (5–20) #34 (16.5–42.5) *+#0.005
 Difference between groups10.76 (14.32) *12.41 (14.52) +11.03 (16.26) #−26.54 (16.22) *+#0.001
Sensory (0–34)
 Pre13.5 (10–19)16.5 (10–20)15 (12–22)15.5 (13–19)0.84
 Post6.5 (0–12) *7 (2–15) +9 (3–13) #19 (10.5–23.5) *+#0.002
 Difference between groups6.1 (8.0)6.0 (8.1)7.1 (11.3) #−0.5 (8.4) #0.026
Affective (0–17)
 Pre6 (4–7)5 (4–6.5)5 (3–8)5 (3–6)0.794
 Post2 (0–6) *2.5 (0–5.5) +2 (1–5) #7 (2–9.5) *+#0.013
 Difference between groups2.3 (3.8) *2.2 (3.4) +2.6 (4.2) #−1.3 (4.2) *+#0.003
Functional disability (0–24)
 Pre4 (4–7)6 (3–8.5)4 (3–7)4 (3–8)0.83
 Post1.5 (1–4) *1 (0–4.5) +2 (1–4) #5.5 (3–8) *+#0.001
 Difference between groups2.9 (2.3) *2.9 (2.8) +2.4 (3.0) #−0.04 (2.3) *+#0.001
  1. * No statistically significant difference in Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric ANOVA for p < 0.05. Statistically different group from the others in the post hoc Dunn’s test (*p < 0.05; +p < 0.05; #p < 0.05; ¥p < 0.05; €p < 0.05; £p < 0.05)