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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants – The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study

From: Lack of association between dietary inflammatory index and low impact fractures in the Brazilian population: the Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS)

Characteristic Total (n = 2269) Males (n = 684) Females (n = 1585) P value
Mean or n SD % Mean or n SD % Mean or n SD %
Race           0.16
 White 1072 47.2 308 45.0 764 48.2  
 Non-white 1197 52.8 376 55.0 821 51.8  
Age group           0.03a
 40–50 years 785 34.6 249 36.4 536 33.8  
 51–60 years 443 19.5 152 22.2 291 18.4  
 61–70 years 418 18.4 114 16.7 304 19.2  
 ≥ 71 years 623 27.5 169 24.7 454 28.6  
Social classd           0.03b
 AB 314 13.8 109 15.9 205 12.9  
 C 735 32.4 234 34.2 501 31.6  
 DE 1220 53.8 341 49.9 879 55.5  
Geographic region           0.88
 North 297 13.1 94 13.7 203 12.8  
 Northeast 475 20.9 136 19.9 339 21.4  
 Central-West 330 14.5 102 14.9 228 14.4  
 South 372 16.4 116 17.0 256 16.2  
 Southeast 705 35.0 236 34.5 559 35.3  
Area           0.68
 Metropolitan 1103 48.6 328 48.0 775 48.9  
 Interior 1166 51.4 356 52.0 810 51.1  
Marital status           < 0.001c
 Single 245 10.8 70 10.2 175 11  
 Married 1240 54.6 478 69.9 762 48.1  
 Widowed 585 25.8 82 12.0 503 31.7  
 Divorced 199 8.7 54 7.9 145 9.2  
Alcohol consumption           < 0.001
 Yes 621 27.3 295 43.1 326 20.6  
 No 1648 72.6 389 56.9 1259 79.4  
 Mean 2.22 4.6   4.15 6.45   1.38 3.17 3.17 < 0.001
Smoking status           < 0.001
 Current smoker 438 19.3 166 24.3 272 17.2  
 Past 723 31.9 269 39.4 453 28.6  
 Never 1108 48.8 248 36.3 860 54.3  
 Cigarettes/day 15.12 15.50 17.64 14.26 13.6 16.07 < 0.001
 Age started (years) 18.05 11.50 15.64 6.87 19.5 13.40 < 0.001
 Age quit (years) 42.75 16.50 41.38 14.98 43.5730 45 0.23
Low impact Fractures           0.006
 Yes 205 9.0 79 11.5 126 7.9  
 No 2064 91.0 605 88.5 1459 92.1  
 Diabetes Mellitus 236 7.4 64 9.4 172 10.9 0.28
 Hypertension 790 24.6 197 28.8 593 37.4 < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia 175 5.5 30 4.4 145 9.1 < 0.001
 Osteoporosis 214 6.7 21 3.1 193 12.2 < 0.001
 Rheumatoid Arthritis 259 8.1 34 5.0 225 14.2 < 0.001
 Cancer 31 1.0 10 1.5 21 1.3 0.8
 Gastritis 313 13.8 71 10.4 242 15.3 0.002
Drug therapy
 NSAIDse 85 3.7 13 1.9 72 4.5 0.002
 Statins 35 1.5 5 0.7 30 1.9 0.04
 Corticoids 94 4.1 26 3.8 68 4.3 0.81
 HRTf 97 6.1  
  1. SD Standard deviation
  2. aDifference was observed on 51 – 60 age group (p = 0.033), using Bonferroni correction
  3. bD and E classes had more frequency than the other social classes (p=0.014)
  4. cMarried and widowed were majority in this study (p<0.001)
  5. dClasses A and B (earning 15 times more than minimum wages), C (3 to 5 times minimum wage), and D and E (1 to 3 times minimum wage)
  6. eNSAIDs: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  7. fHRT hormone replacement therapy