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Table 2 Risk factors associated with CMV disease in the SLE population (2 studies)

From: Risk factors for cytomegalovirus disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a systematic review

RISK FACTOR Positive correlation with CMV disease Negative correlation with CMV disease Neutral correlation with CMV disease
  No. of supporting studies Type of studies No. of supporting studies Type of studies No. of supporting studies Type of studies
1. Demographics
 Age      I
II
CS
CS
 Age of disease onset      II CS
 Gender – Male    I CS   
2. Clinical features including autoimmune disease characteristics
 SLE disease duration I CS    II CS
 SLE disease score/severity      II CS
3. Laboratory characteristics
 Bacterial pneumonia I CS     
 BUN I CS     
 CD4 count    I CS   
 CD8 count      I CS
 Co-infection I CS     
 Creatinine    I CS   
 Elevated ALP I CS     
 Elevated ALT I CS     
 Elevated AST      I CS
 Elevated CMV viral load I CS     
 Elevated CMV IgG levels II CS     
 Fungal infection I CS     
 LDH I CS     
 Leukopenia      I CS
 Lymphopenia I CS    II CS
 Neutropenia      I CS
 Positive blood/sputum bacterial culture      II CS
 γ-GT I CS     
4. Treatment
 Azathioprine II CS     
 Cyclosporine I CS     
 Cyclophosphamide I CS     
 Mycophenolate I CS     
 Immunosuppressants I CS     
 Prednisolone II CS     
 Duration of prednisolone use      I CS
 Prednisolone dose in last 3 months    II CS   
 Glucocorticoid dose I CS     
  1. CS Cross sectional, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, ALP Alanine Phosphatase, ALT Alanine transaminase, AST Aspartate transaminase
  2. γ-GT Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)