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Table 1 Cutaneous manifestations, demographic data, disease activity, outcome, skin biopsy and treatment in six childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients with lupus erythematosus panniculitis (LEP)

From: Panniculitis in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicentric cohort study

Patient Interval between LEP and cSLE diagnosis, years SLEDAI-2 K Painful Plaques / painful subcutaneous nodules Cutaneous hyperpigmentation / hypopigmentation / atrophy Skin biopsy findings; direct immunofluorescence staining (DIF) Treatments
1 −2.5 3 - / + + / - / + LP; mild GCD of IgM at DEJ) PD, AM, NSAID, AZA
2 11.4 13 + / + + / - / + LP with vasculitis; moderate GCD of IgM at DEJ) PD, MP, AM, AZA, MTX, IVIG
3 5.5 13 + / + + / + / + LP; intense GCD of IgG, IgG, IgA and C3 at DEJ PD, MP, CY, MTX
4 0 25 - / + - / - / - LP, vasculopathy obliterans; absence of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4 at DEJ No treatmenta
5 0 0 + / + + / + / + LP; absence of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4 at DEJ PD, AM, NSAID, MMF, rituximab
6 9.91 5 + / + + / - / + LP; ND PD, MP, AM, MTX, MMF, IVCYC
  1. adeceased before starting any treatment, + presence, − absence, LP lobular panniculitis, APS antiphospholipid syndrome PD prednisone, MP methylprednisolone, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, AM antimalarial, AZA azathioprine, IVCYC intravenous cyclophosphamide, CY cyclosporine, MTX methotrexate, MMF mycopheneolate mofetil, IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin, GCD granular and continuous deposits, DEJ dermo-epidermal junction, ND not done, SLEDAI-2 K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000