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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with SLE associated with PAH (SLE-PAH) or not associated with PAH (SLE-nPAH)

From: Nailfold capillaroscopy as a risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

  SLE-nPAH n = 44 SLE-PAH n = 21 P-value
Age at SLE diagnosis (years) 31.2 ± 12.3 28.8 ± 10.2 0.411
Age at PAH diagnosis (years) 35.5 ± 11.8
Duration of disease at recruitment (years) 5.6 ± 3.2 6.7 ± 6.4 0.437
Female sex, n (%) 42 (95.5) 20 (95.2) 0.969
Smoker, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (4.8) 0.145
Ex-smoker, n (%) 4 (9.1) 1 (4.8) 0.295
ACR SLE criteria, n (%)
 Malar rash 34 (77.3) 13 (65) 0.303
 Photosensitivity 35 (79.5) 11 (55) 0.043
 Discoid rash 3 (6.8) 0 (0) 0.232
 Oral ulcers 7 (15.9) 4 (20) 0. 688
 Arthritis 41 (93.2) 14 (70) 0.013
 Serositis 2 (40%) 12 (60) 0.112
 Hematologic involvement 27 (61.4) 14 (70) 0.504
 Renal involvement 18 (40.9) 7 (35) 0.635
 Neuropsychiatric involvement 8 (18.2) 4 (20) 0.863
 ANA 44(100) 19 (90.4) 0.189
 Anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, or antiphospholipid 25 (56.8) 11 (57.9) 0.937
Raynaud’s phenomenon, n (%) 25 (56.8) 17 (81) 0.057
Livedo reticularis, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (4.8) 0.145
Arterial thrombosis, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (4.8) 0.145
Venous thrombosis, n (%) 7 (15.9) 5 (23.8) 0.443
SLEDAI 1.91 ± 3.16 2.56 ± 3.79 0.559
Pregnancy, n (%) 26 (59.1) 14 (66.7) 0.557
Miscarriage, n (%) 4 (9.1) 6 (28.6) 0.042
Anti-SM, n (%) 10 (22.7) 4 (23.5) 0.947
Anti-RNP, n (%) 19 (43.2) 11 (64.7) 0.132
Anti-Ro, n (%) 11 (25) 5 (29.4) 0.725
Anti-La, n (%) 5 (11.4) 2 (11.8) 0.965
Positive anti- aCL IgM, n (%) 3 (7) 2 (11.1) 0.591
Positive anti- aCL IgG, n (%) 7 (16.3) 3 (16.7) 0.970
Positive anti-dsDNA, n (%) 15 (34.1) 3 (17.6) 0.207
C2 (mg/dL) 91.4 ± 25.7 86.9 ± 29.8 0.690
CH100 (mg/dL) 91.5 ± 24.8 89.4 ± 30.2 0.957
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.5 ± 1.3 13.2 ± 1.5 0.138
Leukocytes (/mm3) 6.317 ± 3.120 6.149 ± 3.766 0.977
Lymphocytes (/mm3) 1.643 ± 899 1.477 ± 675 0.617
Platelets (/mm3) 251.295 ± 101.691 197.500 ± 68.534 0.028
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.73 ± 0.23 0.86 ± 0.36 0.077
CRP (mg/dL) 9.02 ± 14.3 12.10 ± 37.32 0.314
24-h urine protein (mg/kg/24 h) 0.36 ± 0.52 0.26 ± 0.25 0.785
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation or n (%). ACR American College of Rheumatology, ANA antinuclear antibodies, anti-aCL anticardiolipin, CRP C-reactive protein, nPAH no PAH, PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SLEDAI Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index