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Table 1 Studies investigating the association of leptin and rheumatoid arthritis in humans

From: Adipokines in rheumatoid arthritis

Authors Study design Subjects Results/outcomes
Rho et al. (2010) [19] Cross-sectional study evaluating correlation between HOMA-IR and serum adipokine levels. 169 RA patients Positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin resistance.
Targońska-Stepniak et al. (2010) [20] Cross-sectional study evaluating correlation between disease activity and serum adipokine levels. 80 RA patients Positive correlation between serum leptin and DAS28.
Yoshino et al. (2011) [21] Case-control study evaluating correlation between inflammation markers and serum adipokine levels. 141 RA patients
146 controls without RA
Positive correlation between serum leptin and CRP.
Kontunen et al. (2011) [22] Cross-sectional study evaluating correlation between serum adipokines levels and markers of inflammation and MetS. 54 RA patients, 20 with MetS Increased levels of serum leptin observed only in patients with MetS.
Olama et al. (2012) [15] Case-control study evaluating differences between serum leptin and synovial/serum leptin ratio. 40 RA patients
30 controls without RA
Inverse correlation between leptin concentration and protection of joints in severe RA.
Allam e Radwan (2012) [28] Case-control study evaluating correlation between serum leptin levels and disease activity. 37 RA patients
34 controls without RA
No correlation between leptin levels and disease activity.
Kang et al. (2013) [23] Cross-sectional study evaluating correlation between adipokine levels, inflammation markers, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. 192 RA patients Positive correlation between serum leptin and TNF-α and metabolic risk, including insulin resistance
Mirfeizi et al. (2014) [30] Cross-sectional study evaluating correlation between adipokine levels and radiographic joint damage. 54 RA patients (29 with erosion and 25 without erosion) No differences in serum leptin between the two groups.
Abdalla et al. (2014) [29] Case-control study evaluating correlation between serum leptin levels and clinical manifestations of disease activity. 60 RA patients
30 healthy controls
No correlation between leptin levels and clinical and laboratorial markers of disease activity.
Bustos Rivera-Bahena et al. (2015) [24] Cross-sectional study evaluating correlation between adipokine levels and disease activity. 121 RA patients Positive correlation between serum leptin and disease activity.
Xibille-Friedmann et al. (2015) [25] Cohort study evaluating if baseline levels of adipokines may predict disease activity or response to treatment. 127 RA patients after 6 months of follow up; 91 after 1 year of follow up; 52 after 2 years of follow up Positive correlation between serum leptin and prevention of disease activity progression.
Oner et al. (2015) [31] Case-control study evaluating correlation between serum leptin levels and disease activity. 106 RA patients
52 healthy controls
37 osteoarthritis patients
No correlation between serum leptin and disease activity.
Lee e Bae (2016) [27] Meta-analysis evaluating correlation between serum leptin levels and disease activity. 13 studies:
648 RA patients
426 controls without RA
Leptin levels significantly higher in RA patients and weak positive correlation between leptin levels and disease activity.
  1. RA = rheumatoid arthritis; HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; DAS28 = Disease Activity Score-28; CRP = C-reactive protein; TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-α; Metabolic Syndrome = MetS